Research Conducted on the Period of PURPLE Crying Program
Over the last several years, the body of robust, scientific research on infant crying, shaken baby syndrome/abusive head trauma (SBS/AHT) and the Period of PURPLE Crying, has grown significantly. The following research includes two randomized controlled trials, parallel studies underway in British Columbia and North Carolina and summaries of independent and parent evaluations on the Period of PURPLE Crying. Other relevant research has been included that discusses the increase in shaken baby syndrome cases since the start of the recession, normal infant crying and crying as the trigger for shaken SBS/AHT.
Barr R, Rivara F, Barr M, et al. Effectiveness of Educational Materials Designed to Change Knowledge and Behaviors Regarding Crying and Shaken-Baby Syndrome of Newborns: A Randomized, Controlled Trials. Pediatrics 2009; 123(3):972-980.
Barr RG, Barr M, Fujiwara T, Conway J, Catherine N, Brant R. Do educational materials change knowledge and behavior about crying and shaken baby syndrome? A randomized controlled trial. CMAJ, March 31, 2009; 180(7):727-733.
Fujiwara T, Yamada F, Okuyama M, Kamimaki I, Shikoro N, Barr RG. Effectiveness of educational materials designed to change knowledge and behavior about crying and shaken baby syndrome: A replication of a randomized controlled trial in Japan. Child Abuse & Neglect, September 2012; 36(9):613-620.
British Columbia, Canada
- Cry Complaints in the Emergency Room: How Big a Problem is it? Barr R, Colbourne M; Presented at Eleventh International Conference on Shaken Baby Syndrome, Abusive Head Trauma, Intercontinental Hotel, Atlanta/Buckhead, GA. September 13, 2010.
- Crying to Shaking: Individuals Pathways from Crying to Shaking. Barr R; Presented at Eleventh International Conference on Shaken Baby Syndrome, Abusive Head Trauma, Intercontinental Hotel, Atlanta/Buckhead, GA. September 13, 2010.
- Shaken Baby Syndrome and a Triple Dose Strategy for Its Prevention. Stewart TC, Polgar D, Gilliland J, Tanner DA, Girotti MJ, Parry N, Fraser DD; J Trauma. December 2011.
- Period of PURPLE Crying Effective in Changing Knowledge and Behavior in a Home Visiting Program Supporting High Risk, First Time Mothers (Doctoral Dissertation). Bradshaw J; Retrieved from ProQuest LLC (UMI 3415571). 2010.
- Education on Abusive Head Trauma in North Carolina Hospitals. Shanahan et al; Child Abuse Review. July 2011.
- Preventing Child Maltreatment in North Carolina. Zolotor, A; NC Med J. November/December 2010.
- Designing and Testing a Shaken Baby Syndrome Prevention Program - The Period of PURPLE Crying: Keeping Babies Safe in North Carolina. Runyan DK et al; Social Marketing Quarterly. December 2009.
- Tailoring Hospital Education Materials for the Period of PURPLE Crying: Keeping Babies Safe in North Carolina Media Campaign. Hennink-Kaminski H, Dougall E; Social Marketing Quarterly. December 2009.
- Myths, Mysteries, and Monsters: When Shaken Babies Make the News. Hennink-Kaminski H, Dougall E; Social Marketing Quarterly. December 2009.
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Washington
- Abusive Head Trauma During a Time of Increased Unemployment: A Multicenter Analysis.
Berger RP, Fromkin JB, Stutz H, Makoroff K, Scribano PV, Feldman K, Tu LC, Fabio A; Pediatrics. September 2011.
Parent Evaluation of the Materials
Research on Infant Crying
- Preventing abusive head trauma resulting from a failure of normal interaction between infants and their caregivers. Barr, RG; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Ed. Gene E. Robinson; August 7, 2012.
- Over 30 Years of Research on Normal Infant Crying
- Age-related incidence curve of hospitalized Shaken Baby Syndrome cases: convergent evidence for crying as a trigger to shaking. Barr RG, Trent RB, Cross J; Child Abuse Negl. January 2006 [Epub ahead of print].